TRT which acts with a perception of public service, has 7 television channels. These are: TRT1, which addresses the general public and has a perception of diverse broadcasting; TRT2, which makes broadcasts of culture and art; and TRT3, which has a "youth" channel identity with different types of music programs and sports programs. Furthermore, TRT3 is a bridge between the members of Parliament and citizens, with its live broadcasts from the Turkish Grand National Assembly at specific hours of the day. TRT4 is an educational channel which includes the open university and open high school lessons and its broadcasts support the national education policy. TRT-INT and TRT-AVRASYA with its broadcasts abroad has the function of a bridge between Europe and Asia. Furthermore, the GAP-TV broadcasts in the provinces included in scope of the development project in the Southeastern Anatolia Region.
TRT FM, which emphasizes Turkish classical music, Turkish folk music and popular music addresses its audience at FM 91.4. Besides these channels, there are also regional radio stations within the structure of TRT, such as Voice of Turkey Radio, which broadcasts in 26 languages with the aim of forming a positive public opinion in the world about Turkey, Tourism Radio, which broadcasts in 5 languages aimed at foreign tourists in the country and GAP-Diyarbakır Radio, aimed at provinces included in the Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP).
Private Radio Stations and Television Channels. There are 16 private television channels broadcasting nationally. ATV, Kanal D, Show TV, Star TV, NTV and TGRT are among the most popular of the private television channels. Star1, the first private television channel in Turkey, started broadcasting from abroad in 1990 and later, after a change in management, it continued its broadcasts with the name of Interstar. Show TV started broadcasting in 1992 and initially attracted interest with its short news programs. ATV which is the television channel of the Sabah Newspaper Group, started broadcasting in 1993. Kanal D of the Doğan Group and TGRT of the İhlas Group also started broadcasting in the same year. Furthermore, the music channels "Kral TV", "Number One TV" and "Best TV", the economy channel "Kanal E" and the news channels "NTV" and "CNN-Türk" are among the leading private television channels with a perception of thematic broadcasting.
Press : In Turkey, the competition between the written and visual press is gradually tending towards the written press. The importance carried by the written press because of its nature was shaken for a period of time compared to television and radio, but it started to recover in a short period of time. The annual average number of sale of the 21 newspapers published at the national level has reached 4 million. A significant part of the national press utilizes the highest technology available in the world. According to the polls, the habit of reading newspapers in total population is 66 percent.
Local newspapers, which assumed an influential role during the National War of Independence, have an important function for meeting the need for news of the public. Anadolu Press Association reports that 3,450 periodicals, half of them weekly, are published in Turkey. The average daily circulation of local newspapers varies between 1,000 and 15,000. Local newspapers assume an important duty to provide for the relations among the public institutions, organizations and the citizens and to organize these relations. The local press has been trying to renew itself technologically in recent years. Many local newspapers, which follow the national press in utilizing modern technology, has started to use offset printing techniques.
The number of magazines published on various subjects has increased rapidly in recent years. As a matter of fact, the total number of magazines which was 20 in 1990, reached 110 in 1999. The total circulation of the magazines, which are generally published weekly or monthly, is around 2,300,000. News magazines, which give interesting news stories and detailed information about the subjects of current interest, underwent an important change from the aspect of context and form in recent years. A majority of these have assumed a contemporary appearance and have become attractive from the aspect of printing and presentation. Besides news magazines, the economy magazines, radio and television programs magazines, automobiles, arts, literature, women, men, youth/music magazines are also read with enjoyment by the public.
MEDIA IN TURKEY
1 May 1964 was a turningpoint for Turkish Radio and Television broadcasting.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT), which was established on this date, brought a public and institutional identity to radio broadcasting, which had a long history, and television which had started test broadcasting. In this period, besides TRT, many private radio stations and television channels actually started broadcasting. In the 1998 report of OECD on communications, it is announced that Turkey is the record-holder on development in radio and TV broadcasts. While the average of increase in radio-TV sector in OECD was 3.4 percent in the 1995-1997 period, in Turkey the development of this sector in this two-year period was 24.3 percent.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation. A dual structure appeared in Turkey with the entrance into the broadcasting world of the private radio and television organizations in the 1990s: TRT, which was established in 1964, and the private television channels, which started to broadcast later. TRT remained in a separate position in this field, both from the aspect of its perception of broadcasting and from its legal structure. TRT Law No. 2954, is a document that clarifies the different position of TRT. TRT is a broadcasting institution providing public service and has constitutional autonomy.